Waste Management Plan for Village Tintoda

By the year 2025, 83 per cent of the expected global population of 8.5 billion will be living in developing countries. Yet the capacity of available resources and technologies to satisfy the demands of this growing population for food and other agricultural commodities remains uncertain.

Unsustainable patterns of production and consumption are increasing the quantities and variety of environmentally persistent wastes at unprecedented rates. The trend could significantly increase the quantities of wastes produced by the end of the century and increase quantities four to fivefold by the year 2025. A preventive waste management approach focused on changes in lifestyles and in production and consumption patterns offers the best chance for reversing current trends.

A transformation of the global energy system is needed to provide sustainable energy for all, to satisfy rapid growth in energy demand, particularly in developing countries, and to diminish the negative impacts of climate change. New and renewable sources of energy stand at the center of global efforts to induce a paradigm shift towards green economies, poverty eradication and ultimately sustainable development. Record investments are being made by some countries to propel innovation, development and commercialization of renewable energy technologies. Nevertheless, much more cooperation and action is needed to substantially increase the contribution of these technologies to the global energy system. A coordinated global energy strategy needs to be adopted, in conjunction with consistent and stable national policies, to bring down the cost of renewable energy technologies, including off-grid systems, for use by the poorest segments of the population living in rural areas.

Above statements of UN clearly reflect the need for genuine and organized initiatives in the rural waste management in India. With the emerging concern on large quantity of waste being produced both in the form of solid and liquid waste, the concept of waste management becomes one of the key focus of sustainable development principles which is based on policies, and practices that are resource- conversing, follow standards that can be met in the long term, and respect values of equity in human access to resources. Defining Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics and more often, to replace conventional energy resources which are exhaustible and an obvious threat to environment.

Villages are actually strength of the country but illiteracy of the habitats and avoidance of the rural issues by other end of the Indian society are the very reasons that convert the strength in to weakness on exponential scale. The major concern is improper and unplanned waste management system. In fact, our villages are extremely rich in biomass. Non conventional energy sources are actually now no more “Non conventional”, as those have gained very good degree of popularity, still the appropriate and efficient implementation of any such system is challenging.

ECOSYSTEM OF VILLAGE TINTODA

The Planning Area

Regional Profile with Location Map:

Place : Tintoda
PIN Code 382422
District : Gandhinagar
Tehsil/Taluka : Gandhinagar
State : Gujarat
Latitude 23.21271
Longitude 72.57291
Engineering College
Engineering Colleges in Ahmedabad
Map of Village Tintoda- situated at 11 kms from Gandhinagar, 7 Kms from Kalol & 3 Kms from Shertha

General:

The history seems to be associated with Rabari caste. There is “Vadwala Temple” in the village, which has religious importance for Rabaris. Also the occupation of cattle rearing is dominant in the village which is very common for Rabari caste. A Shwetambar jain tample is also located in the village which is considered as one of the important “Tirthas” of Jain religion. The village is divided in to various Parts traditionally known as “vaas”, like Kumbharvaas, Thhakorvaas, Darjivaas, Ravaliyavaas etc. It is observed that basically the division might be based on group of habitats belonging to same caste, but presently the trend is not followed.

Village Profile:

Area details
Area of village (in hectares) 990.59
Number of households 1,261
Population data based on 2001 census
Total population – Persons 6,593
Total population – Males 3,378
Total population – Females 3,215
Scheduled castes population – Persons 102
Scheduled castes population – Males 52
Scheduled castes population – Females 50
Scheduled tribes population – Persons 2
Scheduled tribes population – Males 1
Scheduled tribes population – Females 1
Education facilities
Education facilities Available
Number of primary schools 6
Number of middle schools 0
Number of secondary schools 1
Number of senior secondary schools 0
Number of colleges 0
College available within range More than 10 Kms
Number of adult literacy class/centres 0
Number of industrial schools 0
Number of training schools 0
Number of other educational schools 0
Medical facilities
Medical facilities Available
Number of allopathic hospitals 0
Allopathic hospitals available within range More than 10 Kms
Number of ayurvedic hospitals 0
Number of unani hospital 0
Number of homeopathic hospital 0
Number of allopathic dispensary 0
Number of ayurvedic dispensary 0
Number of unani dispensary 0
Number of homeopathic dispensary 0
Number of maternity and child welfare centre 1
Number of maternity home -
Number of child welfare centre 0
Number of health centre 0
Number of primary health centre 0
Primary health centre available within range Between 5 Kms and 10 Kms
Number of primary health sub centre 1
Number of family welfare centre 0
Number of T.B. clinic 0
Number of nursing home 0
Number of registered private medical practiotioners 0
Number of subsidised medical practitioners 0
Number of community health workers 1
Number of other medical facilities 0
Drinking water facilities
Drinking water facilities Available
Tap water Available
Well water Not Available
Tank water Available
Tubewell water Available
Handpump Not Available
River water Not Available
Canals Not Available
Lakes Not Available
Spring Not Available
Other drinking water sources Not Available
Post, telegraph and telephone facilities
Post, telegraph and phone facilities Available
Number of post office 1
Number of telegraph office 0
Number of post and telegraph office 0
Number of telephone connections 10
Communication facilities
Communication facilities Yes
Bus services Yes
Railways services Yes
Navigable water way including river, canal etc. No
Banking facilities
Banking facilities Not available
Number of commercial bank 0
Commercial bank available within range Between 5 Kms and 10 Kms
Number of Co-operative commercial bank 0
Co-operative bank available within range More than 10 Kms
Credit societies
Credit societies facilities Available
Number of agricultural credit societies 1
Number of non agricultural credit societies 0
Available within range More than 10 Kms
Number of other credit societies 0
Other credit societies available within range More than 10 Kms
Recreational and cultural facilities
Recreational and cultural facilities Not available
Number of cinema/video-hall 0
Cinema / video-hall available within range More than 10 Kms
Number of sports club 0
Sports club available range More than 10 Kms
Number of stadium/auditorium 0
Stadium /auditorium available within range More than 10 Kms
Approach to villages
Approach paved roads Available
Approach mud roads Not available
Approach foot path Available
Approach – navigable river Not available
Approach – navigable canal Not available
Approach – navigable water-way other than river or canal Not available
Nearest town GANDHINAGAR
Distance from the nearest town (in kilometer(s)) 12
Power supply
Power supply facilities Available
Electricity for domestic use Available
Electricity of agricultural use Available
Electricity of other purposes Available
Electricity for all purposes Available
News paper/magazine
News paper/magazine facilities Available
Newspaper Available
Magazine Available
Income and expenditure of the village (in Rs.’00)
Income & Expenditure of the village Yes
Total income 10366
Total expenditure 6505
Most important commodities manufactured
Manufactured item no. 1 BAJRI
Manufactured item no. 2 CASTOR SEEDS
Manufactured item no. 3 PADDY
Land use (Two decimal) in hectares
Number of forest land 0
Number of government canal 0
Number of private canal 0.00
Well(with/without electricity) 0.00
Tube-well (without electricity) 0.00
Tube-well (with electricity) 374.68
Tank 0.00
River 0.00
Lake 0.00
Waterfall 0.00
Total irrigated area 374.68
Unirrigated area 358.88
Culturable waste (including gauchar and groves) 87.92
Area not available for cultivation 169.11

Occupation and Economical Conditions:

Across all 1261 households of the village, the dominant occupation is agriculture and cattle rearing. There are very few small glossary shops. Among total population 45% people are main workers for generating income source for their family. Total 211 families live below poverty line. (socio-economic review- commissionerate of Rural development- Govt of Gujarat). On physical visit, it is very clear that number of actual BPL families must be even high. Most people dwell in raw houses.

Education:

Literacy level of the village

Total Population Literate Illiterate
Persons 6593 4019 2574
Male 3378 2437 941
Female 3215 1582 1633
Village Gam
Village Home

Housing pattern of village Tintoda

Land Distribution:

Sr. No. Details Area in hectares
1 A. Cultivable Land
i) Old Agreement
ii) New Agreement
B. Land on Free Hold
Others
Block A Total
794.3085
5.9794
1.3051
2.9845
0.5362
805.1137
2 B-1 : Non-Cultivable Land 13.2532
3 B-2 : Community Utility
1. Gaamtal
2.Gochar
3.Lake
4.Railway Track
5.Local Board Road
6.Kutcha Roads
7.Toileteries
8. Others

26.0012
87.9783
16.6631
03.4803
8.5038
4.0569
2.8935
19.5259
169.1196
4 C- others registered 3.0873
B-2 + C= 172.2169
B-1+B-2+C= 185.4701
5 TOTAL 990.5838

Agriculture and crop pattern

Village Tintoda owns 805.1137 hectares cultivable land area. Effective irrigated land area is 374.68 hectares. Following table represents typical cropping pattern and annual crop yield. As it is shown, cotton, castor, paddy and vegetables are the major crops in village agriculture.

Crop yield- village Tintoda

Sr. No. Season Crop Area-hectare Yield in quintal/hac
1 Kharif Cotton 150 25
2 Castor 50 15
3 Paddy 20 30
4 Chilies 20 100
5 Others 10 150
Total 250
6 Rabi Bhinda 70 250
7 Cauliflower 30 300
8 Potato 30 300
9 Bringal 20 175
10 Cabbage 70 370
11 Others 30 100
Total 250
12 Zaid Bhinda 100 200
13 Cabbage 70 295
14 Cauliflower 30 250
15 Others 50 275
Total 250

Environmental conditions:

Water Rainfall: Rainfall data: Gandhinagar Taluka

Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Rainfall in mm 421 373 1031 806 1254 1133 1126 802 586 NA NA

Ground water: Water samples were collected from bore wells of forty villages of Gandhinagar taluka during May-2006. Ten villages of each region of Gandhinagar taluka (North, South, East and West) were selected for water sampling. Tintoda was considered as one of ten selected villages of west region of Gandhinagar10. Drinking water is supplied through pipelines from panchayat’s tube well, which cover almost the whole area.

Quality of ground water – village Tintoda

Parameter pH EC TDS TA CaH MgH TH Cl- F- Na+ K+ DO BOD COD SO4 2-
WHO Std. 6.5

8.5
1.4 10
00
120 10
0
150 50
0
250 1.5 20
0
- >5 5 10 500
Exp. Value 7.2
6-
8.0
6
0.69
5-
1.89
30
1-
80
6
344

112
2
60

18
0
12-
128
72

24
0
86.2
7-
592.
99
0.5

2.3
5
14
9-
60
00
1.
0-
2.
0
4.4
5-
7.9
0
0.4

3.6
5
0.8

4.0
12.8
7-
62.5
4
Ave. value 7.4
1
1.16 49
4
652
.4
90.
4
68.
8
15
9
276.
9
0.8
7
27
32
1.
2
6.0
6
1.0
9
1.5
2
30.5
2

Values of all parameters are in mg/L except pH and EC (mS/cm)

Solid and liquid waste:

To determine the picture of waste generation and management, household inventories were conducted. 45 families from different areas of the village were interviewed. Questionnaire was prepared based upon environmental management aspects to get a broader outline about current waste management practices. Following table gives a general idea of present scenario of waste generation and management.

House hold inventory- village Tintoda

1 2 3 4 5
Name Kesarben
Mahorji
Thhakor
Manajibhai
Prhaladji
Kalaji
Lilaben
Gandaji
Ranjanben
Address Juno
Kumbharvaas
Juno
Kumbharvaas
Juno
Kumbharvaas
Juno
Kumbharvaas
Targala
wado
Caste Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore
Family
Members
5 9 6 4 9
Education L – 0 IL – 5 L- 5 IL – 4 L- 3 IL – 3 IL 4 L-3 IL-6
Source of
Income
Labour Farmer Farmer Labour Farmer
Health
situation
—- Frequent
fever
T.B.
No. of cattle 2- Buffalo 3- Buffalo 3- Buffalo 2- Buffalo 2- Buffalo
Domestic
waste
No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Others sometimes Cattle dung Cattle dung Cattle dung Cattle dung
Waste
Disposal
Random Common
place/farm
Common
place/farm
Common
place/farm
Random
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation No- open No- open No- open No- open No- open
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
Public Public Public Private Private
Cooking aid Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha/LPG Chulha
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6 7 8 9 10
Name Goswami
Bhaveshbhai
Shambhuji
Bhikhaji
Rameshji
Ishwarji
Keshiben
Gandaji
Champaben
Gandabhai
Address Mahadev
Temple
Nayakwado Nayakwado Vaniyavaas
Sarpanch
Motovaas
Caste Goswami Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Panchal
Family
Members
5 4 6 18 6
Education L- 5 IL – 4 L- 3 IL -3 L-6 IL-12 L-2 IL-4
Source of
Income
Pujari Labour Labour Glossary
shop, farmer
Labour
Health
situation
Fever
fever
No. of cattle 2- Buffalo 3- Buffalo 1- Buffalo
Food/kitchen Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Others Cattle dung —– —– Cattle dung Cattle dung
Waste
Disposal
Common
place
Common
place
Common
place
Common
place/farm
Common
place/farm
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation Yes No No Yes Yes
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
Public Public
Cooking aid LPG Chulha Chulha Chulha/LPG Culha/stove
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
11 12 13 14 15
Name Savitaben Bhalajibhai
Ambaram
Navneetkumar
Natvarlal
Kalyanjibhai
Chandas
Kokilaben
Purushottam
Address Thhakore
vaas
Darjivaas Darjivaas Darjivaas Darjivaas
Caste Thhakore Parekh Darji Darji Nayee
Family
Members
6 2 5 3 2
Education IL – 6 IL – 2 IL – 5 IL – 3 L – 2
Source of
Income
Labour Nayee Tailoring Tailoring Job-retired
Health
situation
—— —— —— —— ——
No. of cattle 3- Buffalo —— —— —— ——
Food/kitchen Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Others Cattle dung —— —— —— ——
Waste
Disposal
Random/farm Common
place
Random Random Random
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
Private —- —- —- —-
Cooking aid Chulha Chulha LPG LPG LPG
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
16 17 18 19 20
Name Sodaji
Mangaji
Amrutji
Kalaji
Kalaji
Bhalaji
Shantaben Manisha
Joshi
Address Darjivaas Darjivaas Darjivaas Brhamanvado Brhamanvado
Caste Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Prajapati Brahmin
Family
Members
2 4 6 12 6
Education IL – 2 L- 2 IL -2 L- 1 IL -5 L- 3 IL – 9 L-5 IL-6
Source of
Income
Farmer Farmer Labour shop Job
Health
situation
—— —— Fever Fever ——
No. of cattle —— 2- Buffalo —– —– —–
Food/kitchen Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Others —– Cattle dung —– —– —–
Waste
Disposal
Random Random/farm Random Common
Place
Common
Place
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
Private Public —–
Cooking aid Chulha LPG/Chulha Chulha Chulha/LPG LPG
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
21 22 23 24 25
Name Girdharbhai
prajapati
Kamuben
Prajapati
Savitaben Bhikhiben
Thhakore
Vihajibhai
Address Brahman
vado
Brahman
vado
Brahman
vado
Brahman
vado
Mandirvalo
vaas
Caste Prajapati Prajapati Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore
Family
Members
5 3 12 10 10
Education L – 1 IL – 4 IL – 3 IL – 12 IL – 10 IL – 10
Source of
Income
Farmer Vendor Labour Labour Farmer
Health
situation
—— —— —— —— ——
No. of cattle 1- Buffalo —– —– —– 4- Buffalo
Food/kitchen Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Others Cattle dung —– —– —– Cattle dung
Waste
Disposal
Random Random Random Random Random/Farm
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation No No Yes No No
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
Private Private —– Private —–
Cooking aid LPG LPG/Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
26 27 28 29 30
Name Jigneshbhai Jashiben Prhladbhai Bhaveshbhai Jivanbhai
Karshanbhai
Address Mandirvalo
vaas
Mandirvalo
vaas
Mandirvalo
vaas
Prajapati
vaas
Rawal vaas
Caste Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore —– Raval
Family
Members
20 5 7 12 9
Education L -9 IL – 11 IL – 5 IL – 7 L – 4 IL – 8 IL – 9
Source of
Income
Shop, farmer Labour Labour Shop Labour
Health
situation
—— —— —— —— ——
No. of cattle 10- Buffalo —– 3- Buffalo —– —–
Food/kitchen Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Others Cattle dung —– Cattle dung —– —–
Waste
Disposal
Random/farm Random Random Random Random/Farm
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation Yes No Yes Yes No
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
—– —– —– —– —–
Cooking aid LPG Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha
Views-Biogas Yes —– Yes Yes Yes
31 32 33 34 35
Name Champaben Bhikhiben Mathurbhai Maheshbhai Haribhai
Ghelabhai
Address Rawal vaas Rawal vaas Rawal vaas Rawal vaas Rawal vaas
Caste Rawal Rawal Rawal Rawal Rawal
Family
Members
2 4 4 2 7
Education IL – 2 IL – 4 IL – 4 IL – 2 IL – 7
Source of
Income
Labour Labour —– Labour Labour
Health
situation
—— —— —— —— ——
No. of cattle —– —– —– —– —–
Food/kitchen —– —– —– —– —–
Others —– —– —– —– —–
Waste
Disposal
—– —– —– —– —–
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation No No Yes No No
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
—– —– —– —– Public
Cooking aid Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
36 37 38 39 40
Name Manilal
Bhai
Keshaji
Kalaji
Bhikhiben Sitaben
Gabhaji
Chaturben
Ambarambhai
Address Vadwala
vaas
Kumbharvaas Kumbharvaas Kumbharvaas Kumbharvaas
Caste —– Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore
Family
Members
7 4 2 7 1
Education L-3 IL-4 L – 2 IL – 2 IL – 2 IL – 4 IL – 1
Source of
Income
Farmer Farmer Labour CNG Rickshaw
Farming
—–
Health
situation
—— —— —— —— ——
No. of cattle —– 2- Buffalo —– —– 1 Buffalo
Food/kitchen Yes Yes —– Yes —–
Others —– Cattle dung —– —– Cattle dung
Waste
Disposal
Random Random/farm Random Random Random
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation Yes No No No No
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
—– Public —– Public Public
Cooking aid Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
41 42 43 44 45
Name Sitaben Manguben
Govindji
Kuskiben
Baldevji
Jashoda ben Vasudevbhai
Bhatt
Address Kumbharvaas Kumbharvaas Kumbharvaas Thhakore
vaas
Bhraman
vado
Caste Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Thhakore Brahman
Family
Members
7 8 7 5 2
Education L-2 IL-5 IL – 8 IL – 7 IL – 5 L – 2
Source of
Income
Farmer Labour Labour Labour
Retired
Health
situation
Fever —— —— —— ——
No. of cattle 2- Buffalo 2- Buffalo 3- Buffalo —– —–
Food/kitchen Yes Yes —– Yes Yes
Others —– Cattle dung —– —– —–
Waste
Disposal
Random Random/farm Random Random Common
place
Water Supply Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sanitation No No No No Yes
Views about
Sanitation:
Private/public
—– Public —– Public —–
Cooking aid Chulha Chulha Chulha Chulha LPG
Views-Biogas Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Waste Generation:

I. Solid waste

(a) Domestic Solid Waste

Unlike urban life style, domestic kitchen waste generated in villages is immediately used as food for cattle. Rural people have mentality of reducing waste as far as possible. Therefore, amount of kitchen waste is not huge like urban area. In addition, people here are economically poor. Therefore, amount of domestic solid waste is comparatively little. Other metallic/plastic/paper waste is segregated at source only and sold out to recyclers.

Generation of Solid waste in rural areas ranges between 50 gm/capita/day and 250 gm/capita/day as mentioned below:

Rural (Peri- urban or Urban Outgrowth) :150 to 250 gm/cap/day

Rural (Remote/Tribal) : 50 to 150 gm/cap/day

(b) Livestock Waste

The village possesses a good number of cattle. According to Panchayat data, village has 2500 buffalos, 500 cows and 500 goats, which is a fairly rich resource. Taking 10 kg/animal/day dung amount as safe value, 30000 kg/day dung waste is generated.

(c) Agricultural waste

Agro-wastes are mainly generated at the time of harvesting and include agricultural residues left in the field after harvesting/thrashing and the main stalk that is harvested with the crop. The main crops of the village are bajri, castor seeds and paddy. Wheat, Raido and cotton are also the important products of the village.

(d) Bio medical waste

One primary health care centre and one maternity and child care centre are situated inside the village. Waste generation from these centres is very low.

II Domestic Liquid Waste:

Almost all population is facilitated with regular water supply through tube wells. It is estimated that about 75% to 80% water supplied through piped water supply scheme, comes out as grey water. The village has piped network for water supply but only 25 % population is served with drainage facilities. There are some common washing places which generate a big amount of grey water.

Villege Pepole
Villege

Common Washing Places

Waste management:

I. Solid waste:

(a) Domestic Solid waste management: As such, no method exists for solid waste management in the village. People dispose the waste on any open land. A common place to dump the waste has automatically come in to existence; people staying nearby the place use the same for dumping the waste.

Villege

Common place to dump solid waste

(b) Live stock waste: It is generated at almost every household. People generally collect and send them to nearby agricultural fields for soil conditioning and to use as fertilizer. Sometimes some external agencies also buy the dung waste for various purposes.

Plan For Villege Tintoda

Dung waste

II Liquid Waste:

Disposal of liquid waste is the most neglected aspect in village Tintoda. As it has been stated earlier, only 25% of required drainage system is employed in the village. The grey water from drainage system is directly discharged in to a nearby lake without any treatment. All liquid wastes from households is discharged on nearby open land. Only 10% population has availed sanitation facilities. So the fate of waste water and hence that of village inhabitants is uncertain.

Waste Managment Plan for Village Tintoda

Drainage system connecting to common washing place

Sanitation:

Village undergoes a severe problem of less sanitation infrastructure. The community is comparatively poor here and literacy level is low, so the most important part of human hygiene has been totally ignored here. Only 10 % population has sanitation facilities. Open defecation is very common across the village people.

Summary:

Village Tintoda can be characterised, especially with a view to environmental management as follows:

1. The economy of the village is based on agriculture and cattle rearing. Village has more than 3000 bovine animals, but cattle do not play any important role in improving overall economy of the village.

2. Village does not have any systematic waste management system for solid as well as liquid waste. Only 25% of population has amenity to drainage system.

3. Only 10 % population is served with sanitation infrastructure like bathroom and WC. Open deification is a common practice here leading to problems related to hygiene, aesthetics, society and culture.

4. People are struggling to meet the basic needs of day-to-day life. Most people do not generate domestic waste, just because they do not get enough to sustain their daily lives.

5. Major part of the population has access to water supply and electricity.

Quantity of waste generation at village Tintoda

Sr.
No.
Type of waste Quantity/capita/day Total
Quantity
Present W/M practice
1 Domestic solid waste 100 gm/capita/day
Population=7000
700 kg/day food waste-cattle feed
Others- Recycling,
selling to vendor,
dumping in open place
2 Cattle dung 10 kg/capita/day
No. of cattle= 3000
30000
kg/day
unorganized practice of
dumping the dung in
fields
3 Agricultural waste 31.3 ton/day dumping, transporting
the waste to nearby
city area
4 wastewater 100 lit/capita/day
Population=7000
700 m3/day No system exists, open
discharge

Proposal for waste management plan

On the basis of above stated observations, system of waste- cum- resource management is suggested mainly on following line of action:

I. Solid waste shall be separated at source as biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Non-biodegradable waste shall be sent at local material recovery and recycling centre.
Biodegradable waste shall be meticulously collected and sent to community biogas plant. As per the guidelines of MNRE, biogas enrichment and power generation unit shall be constructed.

II. For liquid waste, whatever drainage facility is available shall be continued to utilize, and at the end point of disposal, conventional wastewater treatment shall be carried out. The treated water shall be reused according to the present need, e.g. vegetation and irrigation. Treated water can be utilized for preparing slurry at community biogas plant.

IV. Those, who own their farms and stay away from the village can opt for private compost sanitation system that produces compost at the interval of each 3 to 4 months on regular basis.

V. Cost – benefit analysis and carbon credit statement, compatibility to legislation of Government of India and further procedure shall be carried out.

DETERMINATION OF FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT

Determination of feasibility for a waste management project is strongly founded on following three aspects which are discussed in Agenda 21- UN as sustainability pillars: (I) Economy (II) Environment (III) Society. In such particular cases where environment and society are 100 % benefitted, analysis of feasibility results becomes contextual.

Economy

It is further classified in to two sections broadly: (A) Assessment of cost for the implementation of the proposed project (B) Assessment of benefits by the implementation of the proposed project

Assessment of cost for the implementation of the proposed project

Estimated capital cost of the proposed project

Sr. No. Particulars Qty Rate Cost
D-I Cow dung based biogas plant with upgrading and bottling units
1 Digester Incl.gas holder & balancing tank 4 Nos 675000=00 2700000=00
2 Plant room Incl platform & mixing tanks 4 Nos 175000=00 700000=00
3 high pressure water scrubber 2500000=00
4 Power gen cost 2.02 Rs/kwh 3000000=00
5 Water supply 200000=00 200000=00
6 Electrification 200000=00 200000=00
7 Gas pipe, Scrubber stove etc 30000=00 30000=00
11 Other costs- gas storage tanks/land preparation 800000=00 800000=00
12 Composting units with farm sheds 6 Nos 150000=00 900000=00
D-2 Agro waste briquette machinery 14000000=00 14000000=00
D-3 Waste water treatment system
Screen chamber 20000=00
Grit chamber 4500=00/m2 198000=00
Sedimentation tank 4500=00/m2 108000=00
UASB 6000=00/m3 990000=00
RBC
Plastic discs 30=00/m2 280000=00
steel shaft 55=00/kg 10388=00
Tank 4500=00/m2 810000=00
Gas connections and pipelines 500000=00
Total Project Cost 27217338=00

Estimated cost of Operation and maintenance

Sr No. Particulars Cost Remarks
1 Total waste management project 544346=00 2% of Capital
Investment amount
Per annum
2 Gobar bank 2874375=00 0.35Rs/kg dung
3 Agro waste 3310800=00 Rs 300/ton
4 Salary and wages 1000000=00 Per annum
Total 7729521=00 Per annum

Estimated cost of Dissemination and soft core management

Sr No. Particulars Cost Remarks
1 Mass communication through
media, newspaper, posters, wall
painting
1000000=00 On DD India channel
2 Trainings and meetings 200000=00 Per annum
3 Identification of and
communication with stakeholders
150000=00 Per annum
4 Stationary 50000=00 Per annum
5 Others 50000=00 Per annum
Total 1450000=00 Per annum

Total Cost:
Investment: (a) Rs 27217338=00= 00

Running Cost: {(b) + (c) } = { 7729521=00 + 1450000} =Rs 9179521=00 per annum

Assessment of benefits by the implementation of the proposed project:

Revenue Generation

Particulars Quantity Rate RG PA
1 Power generation 5 MWh daily 5 rs /kwh 9125000=00
2 Vermi compost manure 3840 kg/day Rs 5/kg 7008000=00
3 Gas connection to
household
220 families Rs 150
/family/month
33000=00
4 Agro waste briquetting 11036.93
T/annum
Rs 3000 / T 33110790=00
Total 49276790=00

Total Revenue Generation: Rs per annum= 49276790=00

Environment

Following attributes of environment are influenced positively by application of the proposed waste management plant:

(a) Reduction in GHG emission (b) Water reuse (c) Deforestation (d) Soil Enrichment (e) Public health & hygiene

(a) Reduction in GHG emission: (CO2) emission

Reduction in CO2 emission

Sr.
No.
Activity CO2
emission
Kg/kg fuel
Particulars- Replaced
with biogas
Total CO2 emission
reduction Per Annum kg
1 Burning of
wood
1.83kg/kg 220 families × 5 = 1100
Nos
1.83×147×1100=295911.00
2 Electricity 0.88 kg/kwh
coal fired
PP
5 MW/day PG through
biogas
1.606×106 kg
Total 696425.10
(b) Water pollution

Waste water generation= 100×7000= 700000lit/day= 255500 m3 per annum Hence, with sewage treatment plant 255500 m3 water will be available for reuse. It will reduce BOD= 400 mg/l ×365= 146000mg/l per annum

(c) Deforestation

Per capita annual consumption of fuel wood in Gujarat= 147 kg

Saving of fuel wood= 147×1100 = 161700 kg per annum

(d) Soil enrichment

Vermicompost adds nutrients to soil. Ratio of N:P:K in well maintained vermicompost is 2:1.5:1 in percentage.

Hence, it can be calculated as

Total Nitrogen = 2% of total manure produced: 28032 kg per annum
Total Phosphorus= 1.5% of total manure produced: 21024 kg per annum
Total potassium = 1 % of total manure produced: 14016 kg per annum

(e) Public health and hygiene:

(i) The plan proposes to treat 700000 lit/day that will have definite impact, on positive note, upon health scenario. Water borne diseases will start eliminating with wastewater treatment. It will also decrease breeding of mosquitoes on stagnant untreated water.

(ii) It has been proposed to install biogas plant with gas enrichment unit based on cattle dung that was being dumped in open place.

The following are the principal organisms killed in biogas plants:
o Typhoid
o Paratyphoid,
o Cholera and dysentery bacteria (in one or two weeks),
o Hookworm and bilharzia (in three weeks).
o Tapeworm and roundworm die completely when the fermented slurry is dried in the sun.

(iii) The plan proposes to generate 220 cu m/day biogas for cooking purpose. That will significantly reduce all the hardships need to be undergone by people to use firewood as fuel. It will save 11×220 = 2420 hrs/week of the manpower that can be utilized effectively in other constructive jobs and it will definitely improve health conditions of the beneficiaries.

(iv) Plan also proposes various ways to generate income and employment opportunities for the habitats. Raised economical level will bring more hopes in an individual’s life.

Schematic diagram of waste management plan for village- Tintoda

Amiraj College sanad

CONCLUSION

Tintoda is a village with population of 7000 people. Following waste management plan is suggested for the village:

WM summary

Sr.
No.
Type of waste Quantity/capita/day Total
Quantity
WM Solution
1 Domestic solid waste 100 gm/capita/day
Population=7000
700 kg/day cattle feed
2 Cattle dung 10 kg/capita/day
No. of cattle= 3000
30000
kg/day
Biogas plant with
enrichment unit and
power generation
installations
3 Agricultural waste 31.3 ton/day Briquette from agro
waste
4 Wastewater 100 lit/capita/day
Population=7000
700 m3/day Sewage treatment plant
[A] Biogas plant with enrichment unit and power generation installations

Following are the characteristics of the proposed biogas plant:

• Cattle dung based biogas generation plant uses about 22500 kg cattle dung per day to generate 1080 m3/day biogas.

• The plant mainly consists of four anaerobic digesters mounted in parallel, high pressure water scrubber and gas turbine. The plant has capacity to generate 5 MW power which is suggested to be supplied to main state power grid.

• It produces manure of 3840 kg/day through vermin composting process.

• It produces liquid fertilizer about 200 m3 which is nutrient rich.

[B] Agricultural waste

• Village Tintoda owns 805.1137 hectares cultivable land area. Effective irrigated land area is 374.68 hectares. Total crop production of all three seasons is 11500 T/annum and waste produced from the same is 12140.625 T/annum.

• The waste is used in making the briquettes which can be used as an alternative fuel especially wherever coal is used as fuel. The quantity of briquette from agro waste is 11036.93 T/annum.

[C] Waste water from sewage

• The quantity of wastewater generated from the village is 700 m3/day. It is suggested to treat the water through sewage treatment plant. The plant comprises of primary and secondary treatment units, which results in effluent with TSS

• For secondary treatment UASB is used which produces 221 m3 of biogas. It is suggested to distribute biogas to village people for domestic cooking use through pipelines.

The waste management plan described above provides sustainable solution, satisfying three criteria of sustainability: (a) Economy (b) Environment (c) Society. It generates a pretty good amount of revenue, reduces CO2 emissions, creates opportunity for employment and brings positive change in lives of farmer and other inhabitants of the village.

With the changing trends, attitude of rural people is directing towards awareness. This awareness can play a key role in successful implementation of waste management projects founded on renewable energy principles. Earlier scenario of unsuccessful attempts of running biogas plants can be easily forgotten as a major shift is seen in the society in the process of understanding the inclusive growth. The hurdles in running the plants were majorly at people level and not at the technological level. Only lack of discipline, trust and motivation were the main culprit for the failure. But government, along with more and more entrepreneurs has started to set the examples expressing spherical thinking instead of linear thinking. Progress is the obvious result of this “dung deal”.

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Total Waste Management in Rural Sector of India- proposed waste management plan for Village Tintoda-Dist. Gandhinagar-Gujarat

Dated: DECEMBER 28th 2015
MRS. ZANKHANA DAVE
(I/C PRINCIPAL)
(Amiraj College of Engineering and Technology)

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